Radioactive dating temperature
This results in the emission of a gamma ray, which can also be detected by the photomultiplier tubes.
By looking for signals in the photomultiplier tubes that are separated by the appropriate amount of time, Kam LAND can discriminate between extremely rare antineutrino events and the much more common signals due to background radiation.
While the Kam LAND experiment cannot detect the lower-energy antineutrinos from potassium-40 decay, the researchers believe that the value predicted by the BSE model of 4 TW is correct.
Although 20 TW from uranium and thorium is more than the 16 TW predicted by the BSE model, it is still within the experimental uncertainty – and is much less than the total flux of 44 TW.
Data from Kam LAND and Borexino do not rule out the possibility of such an underground reactor but place upper limits on how much heat could be produced by the reactor deep, if it exists.
Radioactive decay is the loss of elementary particles from an unstable nucleus, ultimately changing the unstable element into another more stable element.In addition, the energy of the antineutrino can be estimated from the amount of light given off during ionization.A few hundred milliseconds later, the neutron is captured by a proton to form a deuteron.Now, the Kam LAND team has bagged a total of 111 of these tiny almost massless particles.
The combined results have allowed the Kam LAND team to conclude that the heat flux due to the uranium and thorium decay chains is about 20 TW with an uncertainty of about 8 TW.In terms of entropy, radioactive decay can be defined as the tendency for matter and energy to gain inert uniformity or stability.